Fish make an excellent addition
to the garden pond. Here are a few things to remember if you are planning to
put fish in your pond.
(Carassius auratus) - Originated in China before 1000 AD. Years of
selective breeding have produced the many of varieties goldfish available
today. Common goldfish and shubunkins are able to tolerate temperature from
0-32o C (32-90o F). The
fancy varieties of goldfish such as fantails, orandas, and ryukins prefer
temperatures from 13-32o C (55-90o C) and therefore are not well suited to
spending the winter outdoors. Their maximum size (35-40 cm / 14-16 in) is
considerably less than koi, which makes goldfish a better choice if you have a
KOI (Cyprinis carpio) - Modern koi varieties
originated in Japan. There are 14 classifications of colour pattern of koi.
Like goldfish, koi can tolerate temperature from 0- 32o C (32-90o F). Small
koi are suitable for most ponds, but one must keep in mind that they can reach
lengths of 90 cm (36 in) or more.
Even at half this size, koi can cause many problems by constantly stirring up
detritus and silt from the bottom, and eating soft new plant growth in a well
(Leuciscus idus) - Originating in Europe where they are found in
lakes and slow moving rivers, the most common type for ponds is the golden
form, the golden orfe. These fish are quite active, and grow quite rapidly,
but they can be somewhat shy unless they are kept in small schools of 6 or
more. The orfe can reach a maximum length of 45-60 cm (18-24"), so it may
outgrow small ponds.
FISH (Gambusia affinis)- The mosquito fish is a small and, grey
fish with a rounded tail and a upward-pointing mouth adapted for feeding at
the water's surface. closely resembling guppies, which belong to the
same family. The females don't lay eggs, but are live bearing, producing
broods as large as 60 to 100 young. Females are larger than males reaching
length of 7 cm (2.5"), while males reach only 4 cm (1.5").
It is best to introduce fish into
your pond gradually. Add no more than 5 or 6 small fish at one time to allow
your pond to achieve a natural balance and prevent an ammonia build up. In
established ponds, a maximum stocking density of 1-2 inches of fish per square
foot of surface area is acceptable. Here is a general guideline for how many
inches of fish you can stock in a filtered pond.
TOTAL INCHES OF FISH
110" eg - 11 ten inch
fish, or 22 five inch fish
150" eg - 15 ten inch
fish, or 6 twenty five inch fish
185" ... and so on
Of course this value can change
depending on amount of plants in the pond, whether a biological filter is
used, the depth of the pond, and many other factors. When purchasing fish,
remember to leave plenty of room for your fish to grow and thrive in your
The amount of feed and type of
food depends on the season, more directly on the water temperature. Being
cold blooded, a fishes body temperature depends directly on the water
temperature. The warmer the water, the higher the fish's metabolic rate and
vice versa. The same is true for the bacteria that live in the fish's
digestive system and break down their food. These bacteria become inactive at
therefore you should not feed your fish when the water temperature drops much
Goldfish and Koi have delicate digestive systems, it is best to feed them only
what will be eaten in a couple of minutes 3-4 times a day, rather than letting
them gorge once a day.